Asthma is a respiratory condition that affects 5.4 million people in the UK (Asthma UK, 2016). Asthma is characterised by airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation.  As a long-term medical condition, it is important to safely manage asthma symptoms.  The mainstay treatments for asthma are reliever and preventer inhalers.  However, these can become less effective over time.  Pre-clinical data demonstrate that long-term treatment with TR4 would maintain its therapeutic effects in asthmatics.

Chronic Heart Failure

As well as for asthma, TR4 is being developed as a treatment for chronic heart failure (CHF). CHF affects about 900,000 people in the UK and has an extremely poor prognosis, with a mortality of 30−40 % in the first year (NICE 2010, Chronic heart failure in adults: management). CHF is a complex syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to function as a pump to support physiological circulation.

Inflammation and Autoimmunity

TR8 is an anti-inflammatory protein that mediates the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoids. Data obtained from non-clinical studies indicate that TR8 has potential use in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.


Gastric Neuroendocrine Tumours is an extremely rare condition, affecting 0.0032% of the European population (M. Boyce, 2015). A large number of these cases are due to hypergastrinaemia, a condition characterised by high levels of gastrin production. Gastrin is a hormone that acts on ECL cells in the stomach, causing them to produce histamine as part of the acid-production pathway. Over-production of gastrin causes the formation of neuroendocrine tumours. Ceclazepide is a gastrin receptor antagonist and shows promise in treating this rare disease.